If debt collectors have been threatening you, don’t worry. To get into your bank account, the creditor must get a court order.
That means the creditor must sue you, take you to court and win. After a judgment enters against you, a creditor can have access to your bank account.
If you owe the federal government, that may be a different story. The federal government does not need to get a judgment against you to access your bank account as a creditor. The government could also use wage garnishment, tax refund interception and Social Security garnishment to get repaid.
Also, if you owe a debt to the same institution who you owe money, they can access your bank account.